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9. Classical genetics

PAU contents

  • Mendel's Laws . Genotype and phenotype. Dominant and recessive alleles . Intermediate inheritance . Homozygosity and heterozygosity .
    • Development:

      • Mendel's Laws.
      • Hybrid concept; homozygosity and heterozygosity.
      • Gene and allele concept.
      • Genotype and phenotype concept.
      • Dominant, recessive, codominant alleles and intermediate inheritance.

      All seen with simple examples. The problems: exclusively of application of Mendel's laws. Problems of codominance, intermediate inheritance, allelic series, inheritance linked to sex or Mendel's third law may be included, but without combining these difficulties in the same problem. Blood group problems of the AB0 system (allelic series + codominance) and Rh can be raised, but without combining with any other difficulty. Family tree problems will not be included.

      The nomenclature of genetic problems will follow what is agreed in the document attached as an annex to the program.

    LOCK 3: Genetics and evolution
    CONTENTS: Molecular or chemical genetics of heredity. Identification of DNA as the carrier of genetic information. Gene concept. Replication of DNA. Stages of replication. Differences between the replicative process between eukaryotes and prokaryotes. The RNA. Types and functions. The expression of genes. Genetic transcription and translation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The genetic code in genetic information. Mutations. Types. Mutagenic agents. Mutations and cancer. Implications of mutations in the evolution and appearance of new species. Genetic engineering Current main lines of research. Genetically modified organisms. Genome project: Social repercussions and ethical evaluations of genetic manipulation and new gene therapies. Mendelian geneticsChromosomal theory of inheritance . Determinism of sex and sex - linked inheritance and influenced by gender . Evidence of the evolutionary process. Darwinism and Neo-Darwinism: The Synthetic Theory of Evolution. Natural selection Beginning. Mutation, recombination and adaptation. Evolution and biodiversity.

    Crit.BI.3.1. Analyze the role of DNA as a carrier of genetic information. FCTC-CCL

    Est.BI.3.1.1. It describes the structure and chemical composition of DNA, recognizing its biological importance as a molecule responsible for the storage, conservation and transmission of genetic information.

    Crit.BI.3.2. Distinguish the stages of replication by differentiating the enzymes involved in it. FCTC

    Est.BI.3.2.1. Differentiate the stages of replication and identify the enzymes involved in it.

    Crit.BI.3.3. Establish the relationship of DNA with protein synthesis. FCTC

    Est.BI.3.3.1. Establishes the relationship of DNA with the process of protein synthesis.

    Crit.BI.3.4. Determine the characteristics and functions of RNAs. FCTC

    Est.BI.3.4.1. It differentiates the types of RNA, as well as the function of each one of them in the transcription and translation processes.

    Est.BI.3.4.2. Recognize the fundamental characteristics of the genetic code by applying this knowledge to solving problems in molecular genetics.

    Crit.BI.3.5. Elaborate and interpret diagrams of the replication, transcription and translation processes. FCTC-CCL

    Est.BI.3.5.1 -Est.BI.3.5.3. Interprets and explains diagrams of the replication, transcription and translation processes, identifying, distinguishing and differentiating the main enzymes related to these processes.

    Est.BI.3.5.2. Solve practical exercises on replication, transcription and translation, and on the application of the genetic code.

    Crit.BI.3.6. Define the concept of mutation distinguishing the main types and mutagenic agents. FCTC-CCL

    Est.BI.3.6.1. Describes the concept of mutation establishing its relationship with failures in the transmission of genetic information.

    Est.BI.3.6.2. Classify mutations by identifying the most common mutagenic agents.

    Crit.BI.3.7. Contrast the relationship between mutation and cancer. FCTC

    Est.BI.3.7.1. Associates the relationship between the mutation and cancer, determining the risks involved in some mutagenic agents.

    Crit.BI.3.8. Develop the most recent advances in the field of genetic engineering, as well as its applications. FCTC-CAA

    Est.BI.3.8.1. It summarizes and conducts research on the techniques developed in genetic manipulation processes to obtain transgenic organisms.

    Crit.BI.3 9. Analyze progress in the knowledge of the human genome and its influence on new treatments. FCTC-CSC

    Est.BI.3.9.1. It recognizes the most recent discoveries about the human genome and its applications in genetic engineering, assessing their ethical and social implications.

    Crit.BI.3.10. Formulate the principles of Mendelian Genetics, applying the laws of inheritance in problem solving and FCTC

    Est.BI.3.10.1. Analyze and predict by applying the principles of Mendelian genetics, the results of exercises of transmission of autosomal traits , traits linked to sex and influenced by sex .

    Crit.BI.3.11. Differentiate different evidences of the evolutionary process. FCTC

    Est.BI.3.11.1. It argues different evidences that demonstrate the evolutionary fact.

    Crit.BI.3.12. Recognize, differentiate and distinguish the principles of Darwinian and neo-Darwinian theory. FCTC

    Est.BI.3.12.1. Identify the principles of Darwinian and Neo-Darwinian theory, comparing their differences.

    Crit.BI.3.13. Relate genotype and gene frequencies with population genetics and their influence on evolution. FCTC

    Est.BI.3.13.1. Distinguish the factors that influence gene frequencies.

    Est.BI.3.13.2. Understand and apply gene frequency study models in private research and in theoretical models.

    Crit.BI.3.14. Recognize the importance of mutation and recombination. FCTC

    Crit.BI.3.15. Analyze the factors that increase biodiversity and their influence on the speciation process. FCTC

    Est.BI.3.14.1. It illustrates the relationship between mutation and recombination, the increase in diversity and its influence on the evolution of living beings.

    Est.BI.3.15.1. Distinguish types of speciation, identifying the factors that enable the segregation of an original species into two different species.

    BOE Access to the University. Block 3. Genetics and evolution

    • It describes the structure and chemical composition of DNA, recognizing its biological importance as a molecule responsible for the storage, conservation and transmission of genetic information.
    • Differentiate the stages of replication and identify the enzymes involved in it.
    • Establishes the relationship of DNA with the  process of protein synthesis.
    • It differentiates the types of RNA, as well as the function of each one of them in the  transcription and translation processes.
    • Recognize the fundamental characteristics of the genetic code by applying this  knowledge to solving problems in molecular genetics.
    • Interpret and explain diagrams of the replication, transcription and translation processes.
    • Solve practical exercises on replication, transcription and translation, and on the  application of the genetic code. Identify, distinguish and differentiate the  main enzymes related to the  transcription and translation processes.
    • Describes the concept of mutation establishing its relationship with failures in  the transmission of genetic information.
    • Classify mutations by identifying the most  common mutagenic agents.
    • Analyzes and predicts, applying the principles of Mendelian genetics, the  results of exercises for the transmission of autosomal traitstraits linked to sex and influenced by sex.
    • It argues different evidences that demonstrate the evolutionary fact.
    • Identify the principles of Darwinian and Neo-Darwinian theory, comparing their differences.
    • It illustrates the relationship between mutation and recombination, the increase in  diversity and its influence on the evolution of living beings.