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6. Cell morphology

PAU contents

Didactic unit 3. Cell morphology, structure and function

• Interpret the internal structure of a eukaryotic animal and plant cell, and of a prokaryotic cell, both under the light and electron microscope, being able to identify and represent their organelles and describe the function they perform.

The idea is that, when faced with diagrams or microphotographs, students know how to differentiate the prokaryotic structure from the eukaryotic one, qualifying in this second case whether it is a plant or animal cell. Likewise, they will be able to recognize the different organelles and indicate their functions, having an idea of ​​the real size of what is observed.

Topic 3.1. Cell morphology.

3.1.1. Prokaryotes

Exclusively plasmid concept.

3.1.2. Eukaryotes

Cell wall concept and composition (cellulose)

It may be asked about the relationship between the different membranous organelles and their differences regarding function.

Recognition of images and diagrams: microscopy images or diagrams may be proposed in which bacterial or eukaryotic cells (exclusively animals and plants) appear, complete or parts thereof recognizable and distinguishable by appreciable characteristics in the image.

BLOCK 2: The living cell. Cell morphology, structure and physiology.
CONTENTS: The cell: unit of structure and function. The influence of technical progress in research processes. From the optical microscope to the electron microscope. Cell morphology. Structure and function of cell organelles. Organization models in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Animal and plant cells. The cell as a complex integrated system: study of cell functions and the structures where they develop. The cell cycle. Cell division. Mitosis in animal and plant cells. Meiosis. Its biological necessity in sexual reproduction. Importance of evolution on living creatures. Membranes and their role in cellular exchanges. Selective permeability. The processes of endocytosis and exocytosis. Introduction to metabolism: catabolism and anabolism. Metabolic reactions: energy and regulatory aspects. Cellular respiration, its biological significance. Differences between the aerobic and anaerobic routes. Cellular organelles involved in the respiratory process. Fermentations and their applications Photosynthesis: Cellular location in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Stages of the photosynthetic process. Global balance. Its biological importance. Chemosynthesis.

Crit.BI.2.1. Establish the structural and compositional differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. FCTC

Est.BI.2.1.1 Compare a prokaryotic cell with a eukaryotic one, identifying the cytoplasmic organelles present in them.

Crit.BI.2.2. Interpret the structure of an animal and plant eukaryotic cell, being able to identify and represent their organelles and describe the function they perform. FCTC

Est.BI.2.2.1. It schematizes the different cytoplasmic organelles, recognizing their structures and analyzes the relationship between their function and the chemical composition and ultrastructure of said organelles.

Crit BI.2.6. Examine and understand the importance of membranes in the regulation of cellular exchanges for the maintenance of life. FCTC

Est.BI.2.6.1. Compare and distinguish the types and subtypes of transport through membranes, explaining in detail the characteristics of each one of them.

BOE Access to the University. Block 2. The living cell. Cell morphology, structure and physiology.