Didactic unit 3. Cell morphology, structure and function
• Interpret the internal structure of a eukaryotic animal and plant cell, and of a prokaryotic cell, both under the light and electron microscope, being able to identify and represent their organelles and describe the function they perform.
The idea is that, when faced with diagrams or microphotographs, students know how to differentiate the prokaryotic structure from the eukaryotic one, qualifying in this second case whether it is a plant or animal cell. Likewise, they will be able to recognize the different organelles and indicate their functions, having an idea of the real size of what is observed.
Topic 3.1. Cell morphology.
- Prokaryotic cell morphology. Differential characteristics of the prokaryotic cell.
- Organization of genetic material in bacteria. Plasmids.
Exclusively plasmid concept.
- General scheme of the eukaryotic cell. Differences between eukaryotic plant and animal cell. (Explain the cell wall here).
- The cell or plasma membrane. Fluid mosaic or Singer-Nicholson model.
- Transport through the membrane: Active and passive transport (simple diffusion and facilitated diffusion).
- Membrane dynamics: concept of endocytosis and exocytosis. (Do not differentiate between types).
- The cytoplasm: hyaloplasm (or cytosol) and cytoplasmic organelles.
- Cytoplasmic organelles: endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, mitochondria, chloroplasts, vacuoles.
It may be asked about the relationship between the different membranous organelles and their differences regarding function.
- The nucleus: the nuclear envelope, the nucleoplasm, nucleoli, chromatin / chromosomes (Unit 2.6).
- The cytoskeleton. Cytoskeleton concept. Centrosome and microtubules in relation to their role in cell division.
Recognition of images and diagrams: microscopy images or diagrams may be proposed in which bacterial or eukaryotic cells (exclusively animals and plants) appear, complete or parts thereof recognizable and distinguishable by appreciable characteristics in the image.