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10.6.2.1. Translation in eukaryotes

Translation in eukaryotes

Although the translation processes are very similar in prokaryotes in eukaryotes, they present some difference:

  • In eukaryotes, the nuclear membrane separates the place where transcription takes place (cell nucleus) and the place of translation (cytoplasmic ribosomes).
  • The mRNA of eukaryotic are monocistronic, each only contains information for a protein. The mRNAs of prokaryotes are usually polycistronic.
  • The 5' end of eukaryotic mRNAs have methylguanosine triphosphate so that it can be identified by ribosomes.
  • The ribosomes are formed by rRNA different and sedimentation coefficient is slightly different (80 S in eukaryotic cells and 70 S in prokaryotes).
  • In eukaryotes, the first tRNA does not have formylmethionine attached to it, but methionine.
  • This first tRNA binds to the minor ribosomal subunit before the mRNA, unlike in prokaryotes.
  • The initiation and elongation factors differ from those of prokaryotes.