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8.2.1. Mitosis


Normally, after mitosis (nuclear division), cytokinesis (division of the cytoplasm) occurs. If mitosis involves the rupture of the nuclear envelope and the nucleoplasm is mixed with the cytoplasm (it is called myxoplasm), which is the most frequent, we speak of open mitosis. If the rupture of the karyote does not occur, it will be closed mitosis.  

Mitosis is divided into two parts:

  • Karyokinesis or mitosis: Distribution of genetic material.
  • Cytokinesis: Distribution of the cytoplasm and organelles.

Single-celled organisms use mitosis as a mechanism for asexual reproduction. In multicellular, on the other hand, mitosis allows the formation, growth, and regeneration of tissues, starting from the zygote. For this reason, all cells, except gametes, have the same genetic content, although it is not expressed in the same way in all of them due to the processes of cell differentiation.

Although mitosis is a continuous process, to facilitate its study, it is divided into the following four phases: