Golgi apparatus functions
- Protein transport and concentration (formed mainly in the RE). Proteins from the RER, encompassed in vesicles, bind to the cis region of the dictyosome. Here, if they are not phosphorylated, the proteins undergo phosphorylation. The secreted proteins move from one tank to another, until they reach the tanks located on the trans face of the dictyosome.
- Glycosylation of lipids and proteins. The glycosylation that had begun in the ER is completed. In the Golgi apparatus, the assembly of oligosaccharides to lipids and proteins occurs to form glycolipids and glycoproteins, respectively. Glycosaminoglycans are also produced extracellular matrix of animal cells, as well as pectins and hemicellulose of the walls of the cell plant is.
- Formation of the fragmoplast in plant cells. The telophasic septum that divides the cytoplasm in the equatorial zone of the plant cell, is produced by the association of vesicles derived from the Golgi apparatus.
- Acrosome formation in sperm. The acrosome derives from the Golgi apparatus. It contains hydrolytic enzymes that serve to digest the components of the ovule coatings during fertilization .
- Membrane formation (when the contents of the vesicles are expelled through exocytosis, they bind to the plasma membrane, increasing the surface area).
- Formation of lysosomes.
- Concentration of substances (carbohydrates, proteins). Collector and transport.
When glycoproteins and glycolipids have been synthesized, they will go to the plasma membrane through the secretory membranes.
The proteins (formed in the RER) and lipids (formed in the REL) are transported to the Golgi apparatus by vesicles transition and there they are passed from saccule in saccule and out through the secretory vesicles transformed into glycolipids and glycoproteins.
The dictyosomes are dynamic structures as sacchules of the Golgi apparatus are constantly renewed by fusion of vesicles of transition from the SR membranes and are transformed sacchules to become secretory vesicles.