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13.5.1. Natural immunity

Natural immunity

The natural immunity is the set of processes that prevent so naturally and spontaneously to healthy individuals from infection by pathogens. 

There are two types of natural immunity:

Active natural immunity

This is the immunity that the body acquires when it synthesizes antibodies after the introduction of the antigen. The natural immunity active is then acquires overcome an infectious diseasebecause the body is loaded with antibodies synthesized and, especially, with lymphocytes memory, so that for a time (sometimes life) the prevents reinfection. For example, immunization against chicken pox.

Passive natural immunity

The passive natural immunity is acquired receiving antibodies specific made by another organism. It is produced by the transfer of antibodies from the mother to the fetus, through the placenta, and to the nursing child through breast milk ("colostrum"). In this way, the child receives antibodies until his immune mechanisms are fully developed.

Questions that have come out in University entrance exams (Selectividad, EBAU, EvAU)

Aragon. June 2018, option A, question 4.

Breastfeeding provides the baby with immunity. (1 point)

a) Explain what this immunity consists of (0.5 points)

b) What are vaccines? Explain how they immunize us (0.5 points)

Aragon. June 2017, option B, question 1 .

In relation to the immune system, briefly define: (1 point)

a) Active and passive natural immunity. (0.5 points)

Aragon. September 2012, option A. 1. (3 points)

Short development theme. Explain the four types of immunity that exist by citing an example:

a) Active natural immunity(0.75 points)

b) Passive natural immunity(0.75 points)


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Biology and Geology teaching materials for Compulsory Secondary Education (ESO) and Baccalaureate students.