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Covalent bond

The covalent bond occurs between atoms that have a similar and high electronegativity: between two non-metals.

The electronegativity is the ability of an atom to attract electrons of a link.

In this bond, neither of the two atoms give up electrons, but instead share pairs of electrons from their outermost shell to acquire the noble gas configuration.

There are two types of covalent bond:

Polar covalent bond

When the atoms are different, having different electronegativity, they will attract the shared electrons with different force, the most electronegative element attracting them more strongly.

When this occurs, a dipole is formed, since there is electrical polarity. The area of ​​the most electronegative atom will have a negative partial charge, as it has a greater tendency to attract electrons. In the area of ​​the least electronegative atom, the partial charge will be positive.

Examples of molecules with polar covalent bond are H2ONHand CH4.

Dipolo de agua

By Riccardo Rovinetti (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons

Enlace covalente en el metano

By DynaBlast (Created with Inkscape) [CC BY-SA 2.5], via Wikimedia Commons


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Biology and Geology teaching materials for Compulsory Secondary Education (ESO) and Baccalaureate students.