Factors influencing photosynthesis
Some of the factors that influence photosynthesis are:
a) CO2 concentration. With high light intensity, photosynthesis increases if the concentration of CO2 in the air is high, until it reaches a limit at which it stabilizes.
c) Water shortage. The scarcity of water in the soil and of water vapor in the air decreases the photosynthetic performance. Thus, in the absence of water, the stomata are closed to prevent desiccation, and the entry of CO2 is less.
d) Temperature. Each species is adapted to live within a range of temperatures. Within this range, the higher the temperature, the higher the efficiency of the enzymes and, therefore, the higher the photosynthetic yield. If the temperature limits are exceeded, enzymatic disturbances occur and performance decreases. If protein denaturation occurs, the plant dies.
e) Lighting time. There are species in which, the longer the hours of light, the higher the photosynthetic yield. Others, on the other hand, require nocturnal periods.
f) Luminous intensity. Each species is adapted to live within a range of light intensity. There are penumbra species and photophilic species. Within each interval, the higher the illumination, the higher the performance, until certain limits are exceeded, in which the irreversible photo-oxidation of the photosynthetic pigments occurs. For the same light intensity, C4 plants show higher performance than C3 plants and never reach light saturation.
g) Color of light. The chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b absorb light energy in the blue and red spectrum region; the carotenes and xanthophylls in blue; the phycocyanins in orange; and phycoerythrins, in the green. All of these pigments pass the energy on to the target molecules. The least usable monochromatic light in organisms lacking phycocyanins and phycoerythrins is green light.