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Bacterial capsule (may be missing)

It is a viscous outer layer with a thickness ranging between 100 and 400 Å. It is very common in pathogenic bacteria because it facilitates adherence to the host's tissues. It is not present in all prokaryotes .

This capsule is rich in polysaccharides and protein molecules.

The bacterial capsule is attributed the following functions:

  • Attach the pathogenic bacteria to its host.
  • It protects the bacteria from the drying medium.
  • It regulates the processes of exchange of water and nutrients, in addition to serving as a storehouse of nutrients.
  • Defense against antibodiesbacteriophages and phagocytic cells.
  • It allows the formation of colonies of bacteria.