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8.2.1.5. Cytokinesis

Cytokinesis

After karyokinesis, cell division ends with cytokinesis.

Cytokinesis usually begins at anaphase and continues through telophase. It is different depending on whether it is animal or plant cells. 

Animal cells

In animal cells, cytokinesis occurs by cleavage. At the end of anaphase and during telophase, the central part of the cell narrows, forming the segmentation groove, which deepens (strangulation). The microfilaments of actin and myosin involved in the formation of the contractile ring. Then it will break down, giving rise to two daughter cells. 

By Cytokinesis_procariotic_mitosis.svg: LadyofHats (Cytokinesis_procariotic_mitosis.svg) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Plant cells

Plant cells, as they lack centrosomes, will form the achromatic spindle from two polar caps. In this case, cytokinesis does not occur by strangulation, but a cell wall is formed between the two daughter cells. This septum, called a fragmoplast, is formed from vesicles from the Golgi apparatus. The fragmoplast has plasmodesmata, small cytoplasmic bridges that connect the two cells. After a while, the fragmoplast transforms into a middle lamella, which gives the plant cells characteristic shape. 


         

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Biology and Geology teaching materials for Compulsory Secondary Education (ESO) and Baccalaureate students.