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10.5. Transcription

DNA to RNA transcription. RNA synthesis.

After Beadle and Tatum , in 1948, established the parallelism between genes and enzymes ( one gene-one enzyme theory ), and Watson and Crick , in 1953, proposed the double helix model of DNA , Crick proposed his hypothesis of collinearity . This hypothesis says that there is a correspondence between the nucleotide sequence of   a gene and the amino acid sequence of the enzymes that the gene encodes .

Two processes are distinguished within the mechanism of the passage from nucleotide sequence to amino acid sequence .

These processes constitute the basis of the central dogma of molecular biology, although it has had to be modified by current knowledge of the replication of some viruses:

  • Viruses that store their genetic information in the form of RNA have an enzymeRNA-replicase, that allows them to duplicate this RNA.
  • Retroviruses use an enzymereverse transcriptase, that synthesizes DNA from an RNA molecule, in a process called reverse transcription or reverse transcription.