The eukaryotic cells are much more complex than prokaryotes, both structurally and functionally. Like prokaryotes, they also have a plasma membrane and ribosomes, they differ from them in that they have a nucleus that separates the DNA from the cytoplasm, cytoplasmic organelles, and the cytoskeleton.
The plasma membrane is very similar in all eukaryotic cells, distinguished by membrane receptors, the proteins located on the outside.
The endomembrane system is made up of membranous organelles that occupy almost the entire cytoplasm, each with its own function. It is constituted by the endoplasmic reticulum, continuing the nuclear membrane, the Golgi apparatus, related to the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum, the vacuoles and the lysosomes.
The energy transducing organelles are mitochondria and chloroplasts. They have a double membrane. The mitochondria are responsible for obtaining energy from the oxidation of organic matter, and chloroplasts , from light energy.
The nucleus of eukaryotic cells is surrounded by the nuclear envelope, a membranous double layer with abundant pores, which separates the nucleoplasm from the cytoplasm. Inside, in the nucleoplasm, is the DNA associated with histones, and some condensation of material called the nucleolus.
Another characteristic of eukaryotic cells is the cytoskeleton, protein filaments that extend from the nuclear to the plasma membrane , which maintain the shape of the cell, facilitate cell mobility (using structures such as cilia and flagella), and play a role in important role both in intracellular trafficking (for example, vesicle and organelle movements) and in cell division.