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5.1.1. Components of nucleic acids

Components of nucleic acids

The nucleic acids are large polymers formed by the repetition of monomers called nucleotides, linked by phosphodiester bonds. There are two basic types, DNA and RNA.

The nucleotides are formed by a phosphoric acid (H3PO4) linked to a ribose or a deoxyribose, and this to a nitrogenous base. If the phosphate group is missing, it is called a nucleoside.

Nitrogenous bases can be:

  • Puric bases: Adenine, Guanine.
  • Pyrimidine bases: Cytosine, Thymine and Uracil.

By Calibuon at English Wikibooks [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

By Alejandro Porto [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimdia Commons