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1. Bioelements and biomolecules. Water and mineral salts

PAU contents

  • Bioelement  and trace element concept .
  • Biomolecules and classification .
  • Inorganic biomolecules: water and mineral salts .
    • Structure of the water molecule.
    • Hydrogen Bridges .
    • Functions: Structural, thermal, solvent .
  • Mineral salts  and their functions :
    • Dissolved .
  • Solutions and membranes
    • Concept of true and colloidal dissolution.
    • Osmotic phenomena in animal and plant cells .

BLOCK 1: The molecular and physicochemical basis of life
CONTENTS: The chemical components of the cell. Bioelements: types, examples, properties and functions. Chemical bonds and their importance in biology. Inorganic molecules and ions: water and mineral salts. Physicochemistry of aqueous dispersions. Diffusion, osmosis and dialysis. Organic molecules. Carbohydrates, lipids, protides and nucleic acids. Biological enzymes or catalysts: Concept and function. Vitamins: Concept. Classification.

Crit.BI.1.1. Determine the physicochemical characteristics of the bioelements that make them essential for life. FCTC-CCL

Est.BI.1.1.1. It describes instrumental techniques and physical and chemical methods that allow the isolation of different molecules and their contribution to the great advance of biological experimentation.
Est.BI.1.1.2. It classifies the types of bioelements, relating each of them with its proportion and biological function and discriminates the chemical bonds that allow the formation of inorganic and organic molecules present in living beings .

Crit.BI.1.2. Argue the reasons why water and mineral salts are fundamental in biological processes. FCTC

Est.BI.1.2.1. It relates the chemical structure of water with its biological functions .
Est.BI.1.2.2. Distinguish the types of mineral salts, relating composition with function .
Est.BI.1.2.3. It contrasts the processes of diffusion, osmosis and dialysis, interpreting their relationship with the saline concentration of the cells 

Crit.BI.1.3. Recognize the different types of macromolecules that make up living matter and relate them to their respective biological functions in the cell. FCTC-CIEE-CAA

Est.BI.1.3.1. It recognizes and classifies the different types of organic biomolecules, relating their chemical composition with their structure and function.
Est.BI.1.3.2. Designs and carries out experiments identifying the presence of different organic molecules in biological samples.
Est.BI.1.3.3. Contrast the processes of dialysis, centrifugation and electrophoresis by interpreting their relationship with organic biomolecules.

Crit.BI.1.4. Identify the types of monomers that make up biological macromolecules and the bonds that join them. FCTC

Est.BI.1.4.1. Identify the monomers and distinguish the chemical bonds that allow the synthesis of macromolecules: O-glucosidic bonds, ester bond, peptide bond, O-nucleoside bond.

Crit.BI 1.5. Determine the chemical composition and describe the function, location and examples of the main organic biomolecules. FCTC-CCL

Est.BI.1.5.1. Describes the composition and function of the main organic biomolecules.

Crit.BI.1.6. Understand the biocatalyst function of enzymes, assessing their biological importance. FCTC

Est.BI.1.6.1. It contrasts the fundamental role of enzymes as biocatalysts, relating their properties to their catalytic function.

Crit.BI.1.7. Point out the importance of vitamins for the maintenance of life. FCTC

Est.BI.1.7.1. Identify the types of vitamins associating their essential function with the diseases they prevent.

BOE Access to the University. Block I. The molecular and physicochemical basis of life

  • Classify the types of bioelements relating each of them with its proportion and biological function .
  • It relates the chemical structure of water  with its biological functions .
  • Distinguish the types of mineral salts, relating composition with function.
  • It contrasts the processes of diffusion, osmosis and dialysis, interpreting their relationship with the saline concentration of the cells .
  • It recognizes and classifies the different types of organic biomolecules, relating their chemical composition with their structure and function.
  • Identifies and distinguishes monomers chemical bonds that allow the synthesis of macromolecules: links O-glycosidic , ester bond, peptide bond, O-nucleoside.
  • Describes the composition and function of the main organic biomolecules.
  • It contrasts the fundamental role of enzymes as biocatalysts, relating their properties to their catalytic function.
  • Identify the types of vitamins associating their essential function with the diseases they prevent.