The genetic engineering is the set of techniques of DNA manipulation of organisms for the purpose of which is usable for people. In this way, it has been possible to modify the DNA of some organisms to be able to design them with certain characteristics.
Genetic engineering can remove or add one or more genes to an organism, increase the number of DNA molecules, clone whole cells and individuals, create genetically modified organisms (GMOs), etc.
Some of the most important tools for manipulating DNA in the laboratory are:
- Restriction enzymes. Proteins that allow us to cut DNA wherever we want. Thus, a particular gene can be isolated.
- DNA ligases. Enzymes that make it possible to bind (join) different pieces of DNA.
- Transfer vectors. DNA molecules that can be replicated and are used to carry genes, such as bacterial plasmids.