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9.3.4.3. Aquifer reduction

Aquifer reduction

When it rains, the water soaks the ground. Part of this water runs as runoff into rivers and seas, but part also infiltrates the subsoil (groundwater) until it occupies the aquifersAquifers are permeable geological formations (such as limestone or sand) that allow water to be stored. If the land relief cuts these formations, natural sources appear, generating wetlands.

The agriculture and human consumption in general has become increasingly more water needed to be. As there is not enough quantity in the surface waters (rivers and lakes), it is resorted to the extraction of the subterranean waters. If the extraction of water is abusive, it can considerably lower the water table and wetlands be affected, putting both flora and fauna at serious risk.

In addition, in coastal areas, the fresh water table can be lowered by irrigating agricultural fields and by excessive consumption for tourism purposes. Sea water can occupy the space left by fresh water and mix with it, causing the salinization of the aquifer and rendering it useless both for agricultural use and for other types of consumption.


         

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Biology and Geology teaching materials for Compulsory Secondary Education (ESO) and Baccalaureate students.