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2.1.2. RNA

Ribonucleic acid (RNA)

RNA is a type of ribononucleic acid that is found in all living things. RNA nucleotides are made up of:

  • pentoseribose.
  • phosphoric acid.
  • nitrogenous baseadenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C) and uracil (U).

RNA is made up of a single chain of nucleotides. In eukaryotic cells, it is found in thenucleus and in the cytoplasm.

There are several types of RNA:

  • Ribosomal RNA or rRNA. It is part of the ribosomes, along with other proteins. This type of RNA is the most abundant.
  • Messenger RNA or mRNA. It carries the information from the DNA from the nucleus to the ribosomes, in the cytoplasm, so that proteins can be synthesized.
  • Transfer RNA or tRNA. The tRNA binds to amino acids and carries them to ribosomes for proteins to be synthesized.