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7.4.4. Mixed structures

Mixed structures

Although we have seen different types of structures separately, it is normal for materials to behave differently in different areas, causing associations of folds and faults.

  • Kink-fault. After compressive stresses bend the rocks, if the plasticity limit is exceeded, they can fracture and generate a reverse fault.
  • Thrust If the compressive stresses continue after the occurrence of a bending-fault, the raised block (upper) slides and overlaps the sunken block (lower) so that the oldest layers of the raised block are above the more modern layers of the block sunken.
  • Shroud mantle. They are large thrusts, up to hundreds of kilometers, usually in collision orogens. New folds are usually superimposed on the slip sheets. In order for the shifting mantles to occur, in addition to compressive stresses, there must be a plastic level on which they move, such as clays or gypsum.


Physical Geology by Steven Earle used under a CC-BY 4.0 international license.


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Biology and Geology teaching materials for Compulsory Secondary Education (ESO) and Baccalaureate students.