The cloning is a technique for obtaining an identical copy of a molecule, cell or organism already developed from DNA. Two clones are genetically identical individuals.
Genetic engineering allows the development of three types of cloning:
- Molecular cloning. It allows making copies of DNA through cells called host cells, although we have seen in the previous section another technique, PCR or polymerase chain reaction that is much faster.
- Cell cloning. Genetically identical cells can be obtained that can be used to repair diseased tissues without rejection.
- Cloning of whole organisms. Genetically identical individuals are obtained.
The cloning to obtain identical copies, is a natural and common process in organisms asexual reproduction. On the other hand, with sexual reproduction, the individuals generated are different from each other and from their parents. The only exception is that of monozygotic twins, which come from the same egg and the same sperm, which are genetically the same.
There are two types of cloning in animals: