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1.3.2.3. Plant cell organelles

Characteristic organelles of the plant eukaryotic cell

Some of the characteristics of eukaryotic plant cells are the following:

Cell wall

The cell wall is a hard and rigid covering, in some cases very thick, that surrounds the plasma membrane of plant cells. It is made up of cellulose, a type of carbohydrate. This wall has some pores that allow the passage of water, nutrients and gases, otherwise the cell would be totally isolated.

The cell wall gives the cell shape and rigidity. It also prevents the cell from breaking down when a lot of water gets in.

Chloroplasts

The chloroplasts are approximately oval organelles, double membrane, exclusive of eukaryotic plant cells. The outer membrane is smooth, while the inner membrane has ramifications (lamellae) in which flat sacs (thylakoids) are formed that are grouped together to form grains.

The stroma is the internal space of the chloroplast, where is a circular DNA, RNA and ribosomes themselves, as in the case of the mitochondria (similar to those of bacteria). Chloroplasts can divide and synthesize their own proteins.

They are responsible for photosynthesis. They use light from the Sun and water to transforminorganic matter (CO2 and mineral salts) in organic matter (glucose).

In addition to chloroplasts, eukaryotic plant cells have other types of plastids that are responsible for storing reserve substances and some pigments.

By Miguelsierra (Own work) [GFDL or CC BY-SA 4.0-3.0-2.5-2.0-1.0], via Wikimedia Commons


         

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Biology and Geology teaching materials for Compulsory Secondary Education (ESO) and Baccalaureate students.