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1.6.3. Differences between mitosis and meiosis

Differences between mitosis and meiosis

The following table summarizes the main differences between mitosis and meiosis.
Mitosis Meiosis
It is produced in somatic cells. It is produced in diploid cells that will give rise to gametes.
It consists of a single cell division. It consists of two successive divisions.
No overcrossing occurs . In the prophase I occurs crossing over of homologous chromosomes.
Sister (identical) chromatids separate at anaphase.

In anaphase I pairs of homologous chromosomes separate.

In anaphase II chromatids (distinct, recombined) separate.

The result is two daughter cells with the same genetic information as the parent cell. The result is four daughter cells with half the genetic information of the parent cell, and different from each other.
Its purpose is the growth and renewal of cells. Its purpose is sexual reproduction and genetic variability.
Extension: Differences between mitosis and meiosis (2nd Baccalaureate).

Comparison between mitosis and meiosis in relation to the number of chromosomes / chromatids in a human cell 2n = 46

Number of chromosomes per cell Number of chromatids (DNA molecules) per cell
Interphase
G1 phase 46 46
S phase (DNA synthesis) Replication of DNA
G2 phase 46 92
Mitosis
Prophase 46 92
Metaphase 46 92
Anaphase (separation of sister chromatids) 92 92
Telophase 92 92
Cytokinesis. Daughter cells are formed. 46 46
Meiosis (DNA has been duplicated before, at the interphase)
Meiosis I or reductional meiosis
Prophase I (recombination between homologous chromosomes) 46 92
Metaphase I 46 92
Anaphase I (separation of homologous chromosomes) 46 92
Telophase I 46 92
Cytokinesis. End of meiosis I. Daughter cell formation 23 46
Meiosis II or equational mitosis (without change in chromosome number, as in mitosis)
Prophase II 23 46
Metaphase II 23 46
Anaphase II (separation of sister chromatids) 46 46
Telophase II 46 46
Cytokinesis. End of meiosis II. Daughter cell formation 23 23


         

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Biology and Geology teaching materials for Compulsory Secondary Education (ESO) and Baccalaureate students.