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Cenozoic era (65 m.y. to today)

The Cenozoic Era is divided into two periods:

The main events of the Cenozoic were:

  • The continents that had been fragmented from Pangea continued their separation to their current position.
  • When the fragmented continents of Pangea collided, mountain ranges such as the AlpsPyrenees, and Himalayas were formedThe Alpine orogeny was developed .
  • The Atlantic Ocean continues to expand.
  • Climate cooling. In the Quaternary there were four glaciations that alternated with other warmer interglacial periods.
  • Diversification of mammalsThey are spread all over the Earth.
  • Appearance of hominids and the human species.

Continentes en el Cenozoico

orogenesis.jpg (Imagen JPEG, 350 × 178 píxeles) - Escalado (0 %). (s. f.). Recuperado a partir de

Life in the Cenozoic

During the Cenozoic there was a great diversification of birds, which appeared from theropods, a type of dinosaurs.

The mammals also diversified, occupying ecological niches left by the dinosaurs were extinct.

The nummulites are a type of protozoa characteristic of the Tertiary.

Flowering plants were developed.

The hominids and the human species appeared, with which the Quaternary would begin.


Nummulites.Hugo.soria at the French language Wikipedia [GFDL or CC-BY-SA-3.0], via Wikimedia Commons

Mesohippus, was an ancestor of the horse, lived in North America about 30 my

Evolución de los equinos

By H. Zell (User:Llez) - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0,

Smilodon, felines known as "saber teeth" lived in America between 2.5 million and 10,000 years ago.


By Boris Dimitrov (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 or GFDL], via Wikimedia Commons


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Biology and Geology teaching materials for Compulsory Secondary Education (ESO) and Baccalaureate students.