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2.1.3. Control of protein synthesis

Control of protein synthesis

The DNA comprises two nucleotide chains containing the information required for operation of our cells. According to the order of the nucleotides (A, G, C, T), DNA has one or another genetic information about the proteins that have to be synthesized.

The DNA is in the nucleus, but the proteins synthesized in the cytoplasm. In order to carry that information to the cytoplasm, where it has to be read by ribosomes, through DNA transcription, the information from a portion of DNA (a gene) is transcribed into messenger RNA.

Messenger RNA can leave the nucleus and reach the cytoplasm with the information transmitted by the DNA to synthesize the corresponding protein. TheDNAis a short, single - stranded molecule, and consists of four nucleotides (A, G, C and U), has instead uracil thymine, having the DNA.

Messenger RNA, in the cytoplasm, is read by ribosomes, which are responsible for the translation or synthesis of proteins. The amino acids are added according to the instructions provided by the RNA until the protein is formed.

Proteins are what determine what a living being is like, its characteristics and the functions it performs.