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1.3.2. Eukaryotic cell

Eukaryotic cells

The endosymbiotic theory explains that eukaryotic cells arose from the evolution of prokaryotic cells. It appears that some aerobic bacteria and other photosynthetic bacteria were ingested by some prokaryotes and had a symbiotic relationship and evolved together. Thus, mitochondria and chloroplasts were formed, organelles very similar to prokaryotic cells, which gave rise to eukaryotic cells.


Unlike prokaryotic cells, eukaryotes have a cytoskeleton and various organelles that allow them to perform their vital functions.

According to the organelles they have, two types of eukaryotic cells are distinguished:

  • The eukaryotic animal cells. They have centrioles, their vacuoles are small, they do not have a cell wall or chloroplasts. Animals and protozoa have these types of cells.
Célula eucariota animal
By Alejandro Porto [CC0], via Wikimedia Commons 
  • The eukaryotic plant cells . They have a cell wall  that surrounds the plasma membrane . They are characterized by having large vacuoles in which they store substances and chloroplasts with which they carry out photosynthesis. Unlike animal cells, they lack centrioles.
    Eukaryotic plant cells are characteristic of plants.

    Fungi have a cell type very similar to the eukaryotic plant cell, but they do not have chloroplasts, since they are not photosynthetic beings.

    Célula eucariota vegetal

    Por LadyofHats. translated by Penarc [Public domain], undefined