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11.1. Ecosystem Components

Throughout this course we have talked about the Earth as a planet and also that it behaves with a system that integrates several layers:


The ecosphere is the area of ​​the Earth in which there are adequate conditions for the existence of life. The ecosphere is the global system of the Earth, made up of all the organisms that make up the biosphere and is characterized by the relationships established between living beings, matter and energy. That is, the ecosphere can also be considered the set of ecosystems that we can find on Earth.
On Earth, living things can live in the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, and the Earth's crust:


The biosphere is the system formed by the set of living beings on Earth, which interact with each other and with the atmosphere, the hydrosphere and the lithosphere, living in the air , in the water or on the ground.


The ecosystem is the set formed by living beings (biocenosis), the physical environment in which they live (biotope), and the relationships established between them.
  • The biotope comprises the abiotic factors, the non-living components, such as location and physical conditions.
  • The biocenosis or community is formed by the living components, the organisms that live in the ecosystem. They are biotic factors.
Biotope and biocenosis are closely related, since there are very complex relationships as a result of the adaptation of living beings to the environment.

Answer in your notebook

How are abiotic and biotic factors in an ecosystem different?

Answer in your notebook

Take a good look at this ecosystem.

Componentes del ecosistema

By LA turrita [CC BY-SA 4.0 ], from Wikimedia Commons

List the components of the biotope.
List the components of the biocenosis.
Name some adaptations of living beings that appear to the environment in which they live.

Answer in your notebook

Define biotope and biocenosis.