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2.3. Structure and composition of the mantle

Structure and composition of the Earth's mantle

The Earth's mantle  is found in the crust and core. It is the thickest layer, extending from about 33 km deep (about 8 km in the oceans) to 2900 km, where the earth's core would begin. It makes up 84% of the planet's volume.

It is formed by a type of rock called peridotite (composed mainly of olivine), although with a more compact structure in the lower part of the mantle. Thus, in the mantle two zones are distinguished:

The terrestrial mantle is a geologically active layer, since the convection movements are produced by which hot materials rise from its lower part (Level D") until reaching the earth's surface, causing the displacement of the tectonic plates (and the continents), which leads to the appearance of earthquakes and volcanoes, mountain ranges, etc. In the same way, the cold materials of the lithosphere descend towards the interior.

The terrestrial mantle in other courses

The subject of the terrestrial mantle is also discussed in: