The greenhouse effect
First of all, we must clarify that the greenhouse effect, which is good, should not be confused with the increase in the greenhouse effect, which is bad.
Due to the distance from the Earth to the Sun, the average temperature of the Earth should be -18 ºC and life would not be possible. But thanks to the greenhouse effect, the average temperature is 15 ºC. This is due to the presence in the atmosphere of gases such as CO2 and methane (CH4) which, due to their high density, occupy the lowest part of the atmosphere. When the sun's rays hit the Earth, it heats up and emits infrared radiation to the outside, but the greenhouse gases absorb part of that radiation and send it back to the Earth's surface, thus increasing the average temperature of the Earth and allowing the existence of life. Therefore, the greenhouse effect is natural and beneficial.
The problem occurs when we pollute the atmosphere and emit gases such as CO2, from the combustion of fossil fuels, or methane (CH4) from intensive livestock farming, which produce an increase in the greenhouse effect. This increase in the greenhouse effect has been produced by human actions and is harmful.
The continuous destruction of forests also contributes to photosynthetic organisms absorbing less atmospheric CO2 .
The increase in the greenhouse effect is causing a greater retention of infrared radiation and global warming is being generated that affects the entire Earth, which is responsible for climate change.
Climate change produces alterations in rainfall and in the hydrological cycle, wind circulation, major droughts and floods, sea level rise, loss of ice from ice caps, disappearance of ecosystems, appearance of pests and diseases, etc.