The seasons of the year
The imaginary plane on which the Earth moves around the Sun is called the ecliptic. The complete translation lasts 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes and 45 seconds, which is called a year. As there are a few hours to spare, every four years one more day is added to the calendar and has 366 days, and that year is said to be a leap year.
The distance between the Earth and the Sun is about 150 million kilometers, although it varies according to the time of year, since the translational movement is not circular, but elliptical, so there is a time of year when they are more closer than others.
- Aphelion: It is the point at which the Earth is furthest from the Sun.
- Perihelion: It is the point at which the Earth is closest to the Sun.
Although it seems clear that the closer the Earth is to the Sun it has to be hotter, what influences the seasons is the perpendicularity or obliqueness of the incidence of the solar rays on the Earth, not the distance at which the Earth is. of the sun
The solar radiation that reaches the Earth does not heat it in the same way in all its parts. In areas close to the equator, the rays strike almost perpendicularly and heat more than in the polar areas, where the sun's rays arrive very obliquely.
Furthermore, due to the tilt of the Earth's axis and translational motion , the sun's rays do not strike the Earth's surface in the same way throughout the year.
In the northern hemisphere, in summer, the sun's rays strike more perpendicularly than in the southern hemisphere, which is winter.
In winter in the northern hemisphere, on the other hand, the sun's rays strike more obliquely than in the southern hemisphere. If it weren't for the tilt of the earth's axis, there would be no stations.
Although it may be strange, in the northern hemisphere, when the rays strike perpendicularly in summer, we are further from the Sun. At that time, in the southern hemisphere they receive the most oblique solar rays, and they are in winter.
In winter in the northern hemisphere, on the other hand, despite being closer to the Sun, the sun's rays heat less because they hit obliquely. In the southern hemisphere, on the other hand, they will be in summer.