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11.1.2. Biocenosis

Biocenosis or community

The biocenosis or community of an ecosystem is the set of all the living beings that live in the biotope, among which certain relationships are established.

population is the set of individuals of the same species that live in a certain place (the biotope). Living together allows them to feed, defend themselves, reproduce, etc. in better conditions than if they lived in isolation. For example, the population of mallard ducks in a lake.

Therefore, the biocenosis is formed by the set of populations that live in the same place and that are related to each other.

The relationships that take place in the ecosystem can be:

According to the populations involved in the relationship, they can be classified into:

According to the way of obtaining food, living beings can be classified into several trophic levels:

  • Producers. Living beings make organic matter from inorganic matter, such as plants.
  • Consumers. Organisms that feed on other living things.
    • Primary consumers. They feed on the producers. They are herbivores.
    • Secondary consumers. They feed on primary consumers. They are carnivores.
    • Tertiary consumers. They are supercarnivores, which feed on other carnivores.
    • Quaternary consumers. In some ecosystems, they are the ones that feed on tertiary consumers.
  • Decomposers. Bacteria and fungi that transform the remains of organic matter into inorganic that can be reused by producers.

Interactive activity: Match the species that are related to each other.

Group Activity: Modeling Food Webs in Darien, Panama.

Answer in your notebook

What is the difference between intraspecific and interspecific relationships of living beings?