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7.6.3. Neuropsychological diseases

Parkinson's disease

The Parkinson is a degenerative disease of one of the parts of the brain that controls the motor system, which causes a progressive alteration of the central nervous system due to poor production of dopamine by the neurons.

There is a loss of the ability to coordinate movements, appearing the characteristic symptoms of tremor in the arms, legs, face, etc., stiffness in the arms and legs, decreased muscle strength, slow movements, etc.

Although it generally affects older people, it can also affect younger people. Although symptoms can be alleviated, currently it cannot be cured.

Curiosity: Michael J. Fox.

Alzheimer disease

The Alzheimer is a neurodegenerative, progressive and incurable disease, which affects 5% of the over 65s, the most common cause of dementia.

It begins when the patient begins to lose memory of recent events, then behavioral disturbances, disorientation, aggressiveness, and progressive loss of cognitive abilities.

Its cause is still not known with certainty, but it seems to be due to a failure in the communication of neurons and problems in obtaining the necessary nutrients, so that the neurons of the cerebral cortex die, so it is It is a neurodegenerative disease.

In addition to affecting the person who suffers from it, Alzheimer's affects the life of the entire family, since its care is complicated in the most advanced stages of the disease, since the patient cannot fend for himself, speak, or perform no daily activities.

Activity: Alzheimer's disease.

Multiple sclerosis

The MS is a progressive disease characterized by loss of myelin  axons of the neurons of the Central Nervous System, leaving the tissue hardened or scarred (so called sclerosis).

The myelin protects neurons as well as facilitating the transmission of nerve impulses. If the myelin is destroyed, the nerve impulses are not transmitted correctly and some symptoms appear such as difficulty in movements, vision problems, etc., depending on the area of ​​the nervous system that is affected.

Esclerosis múltiple
By Symptoms_of_multiple_sclerosis.png: Mikael HäggströmDerivative work: User:Linfocito B (Symptoms_of_multiple_sclerosis.png) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Curiosity: Stephen Hawking.


The epilepsy occurs when some neurons of the Central Nervous System produce a nerve stimulation with abnormal electrical discharges. The excess electrical activity of these hyper-excitable neurons can affect brain functions such as movement, behavior, or the level of consciousness (the notion of what happens around one). It is frequently triggered by visual and auditory stimuli.

The most typical epileptic seizures are seizures with seizures, with loss of consciousness, muscle contractions and sensory disturbances, but there are other types such as partial seizures, absence seizures, etc.

Huntington's disease

The Huntington's disease or Huntington's chorea (before it was known as dancing San Vito), is a degenerative neurological disease hereditary, transmitted from one generation to the next through a dominant gene (in 4th ESO see genetics issues and we will do problems). It is a serious and incurable disease. Symptoms do not appear until adulthood, when the father has already been able to have children and transmit the disease to them.

It is produced by a degeneration of neurons that causes uncontrolled movements of the limbs, loss of intellectual faculties and emotional disturbances. 

Video: What is Huntington's disease .


The Schizophrenia is a mental disorder chronic and severe which is characterized by language and disorganized thinking, delusions, hallucinations, mood disorders and inappropriate behaviors, which can make patients with severe personality disorders and tend to disconnect from the outside world.

Schizophrenia usually appears between the ages of 15 and 45. Sometimes it appears in children, associated with school problems or bad behavior.

Curiosity: Megane Fox.


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