As we have seen in the last few topics, cells carry out metabolism in order to carry out their vital activities. From the nutrients obtained in the digestive system, from the oxygen provided by the respiratory system, and with the intervention of the circulatory system, cells can manufacture their own organic matter and the energy they need. But these chemical reactions also produce waste substances that have to be expelled from the body.
The excretion is the process by which the organism is removed from the waste products resulting from cell activity (metabolism).
The main products of metabolism are:
- Carbon dioxide (CO2), from combustion reactions, where energy is obtained.
- Urea and uric acid, from the degradation of amino acids and nucleic acids, respectively.
- Other toxic substances that have been ingested.
The organs involved in excretion are:
- The kidney is the main organ of the urinary system, with a complex structure that allows it to recover much of the water and useful substances that accompany waste substances .
- The sweat glands remove waste substances that the body does not need in the form of sweat. It has two functions:
- The lungs are responsible for the excretion of CO2 (when leaving the blood towards the alveoli) and its elimination (when exhaling).
- The liver, which removes toxic products formed in metabolism:
The apparatus excretory, see, is not composed only of the urinary system, but there are other devices involved. Besides eliminating toxic substances, the excretory system also contributes to maintain the vital signs of the body, regulating, for example, the amount of water present in the tissue, the body temperature, concentration of salts in blood, etc.
Activity: Don't confuse processes.
Activity: Any question about excretion.