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3.3.3. Diseases in the intestine

Diseases in the intestine


Appendicitis

The appendicitis inflammation caused by infection of the appendix , with the small extension of the blind large intestine, which has no function in humans. There is severe pain in the lower right part of the abdomen with nausea, vomiting and fever .

If it is not treated in time, it can lead to a perforation of the intestine. The normal treatment is its surgical removal.


 

Curiosity: Rógozov, the man who treated himself with appendicitis

Yes, I know it is almost as incredible as when James Bond self- defibrillated in Casino Royale , but the story of Leonid Ivanovich Rogozov is no less. Leonid Rogozov was a Russian doctor born in 1934 who, between 1960 and 1961, participated in the sixth Soviet Antarctic Expedition. He was the only doctor in the group stationed at the Novolázarevskaya Base . While there he developed appendicitis that forced him to have an appendectomy, which made him famous for his self-surgery.

On April 29, 1961, Rogozov began to feel ill. He had general weakness, fever, and pain in the right side of his abdomen. Signs of appendicitis soon became apparent. He had to be taken to another base, but the closest one was 3074 km away, and as there was no availability of a plane, his appendix would not resist and he would suffer appendicitis that would cause death. So Rogozov had two options: die or perform the surgery himself. The second option seemed better to him.

Rózogov had the help of the tractor driver and the expedition meteorologist, who helped him by bringing the instruments closer to him and with a mirror so that he could see what his vision could not directly reach. An incision of about 12 cm was made to locate the appendix, and although it was difficult for him to find it, after several pauses to rest due to his general weakness and nausea, the operation was successfully completed.

After five days, Rogozov stopped having a fever, and two days later he removed the stitches. Two weeks later he was working normally.

Rogozov died in 2000 of lung cancer.

Video: The man who operated on himself.

Stomach flu

The gastroenteritis is a disease characterized by inflammation ("itis") of the gastrointestinal tract comprises the stomach ("gastro"-) and small intestine ("whole"-). It is caused by an infection of the stomach and intestine caused by parasites , viruses , or bacteria such as Salmonella .

The main symptoms are abdominal pain, diarrhea, and vomiting. The treatment consists of replacing the water and salts, with a soft diet, and if it is produced by bacteria, with antibiotics. It is also called colitis.

Diarrhea

The diarrhea is not a disease but a symptom of another disease. The diarrhea is an alteration of the characterized feces by increasing the volume, flow and stool frequency compared with physiological conditions normal, leading to a low absorption of liquids and nutrients , and may be accompanied by abdominal pain , fever, nausea, vomiting, weakness, or loss of appetite.

The causes of diarrhea are very varied, such as gastroenteritisfood poisoning, viral or bacterial infections, inflammatory bowel diseases such as ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease , and it can also be caused by emotional stress.

To avoid dehydration, we must follow a soft diet and drink plenty of fluids that contain mineral salts, not water alone.

Constipation

The constipation is the difficulty in evacuating stools to have little mobility in the large intestine. As the remains of digestion remain in the large intestine for a long time, a large amount of water is absorbed, so the stool becomes less fluid and its expulsion is difficult.

The cause of constipation is due to an incorrect diet, low in fluids and fiber (cellulose) since it retains fluids and the lack of physical exercise. It is the most common digestive disorder, especially in women. Treatment consists of taking laxatives but only when the problem is serious, without taking them regularly. The solution would be to switch to a diet with more fiber and avoid being sedentary.

Curiosity: Cayetano Martínez de Irujo.

Answer in your notebook

3.18.- What advice would you give to a person who has constipation?

Hemorrhoids

The hemorrhoids (or piles) are varicose veins or inflammation of the veins in the rectum and anus.

The main symptom of hemorrhoids is itching and pain in the anal region and  bright red blood in the stool, on the toilet paper or in the toilet.

The hemorrhoids usually arise as a result of the effort to evacuate the intestine, but can be caused by other factors such as pregnancy, chronic constipation, diarrhea or aging .

Treatment would include changes in diet, warm baths, and use of creams to reduce inflammation. In more serious cases, it is necessary to resort to surgery.

HemorroidesBy WikipedianProlific, translated by Rage against (Image:Hemorrhoid.png) [GFDL or CC BY 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons