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Biology 2nd Baccalaureate

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2.3. The food

The food

The foods are ingested substances that living things that bring matter and energy necessary for the functioning of the body.

Food can be classified according to different criteria. For instance:

  • Depending on the origin of the food, they can be:
    • Of animal originmeat, fish, eggs ...
    • Of vegetable origin: fruits, vegetables, legumes, ...
    • Of mineral origin: water, mineral salts, ...
  • According to the nutrients they contain and their function, six food groups are distinguished:
    • Group IEnergetic (predominant composition in carbohydrates: products derived from cereals, potatoes, sugar).
    • Group IIEnergetic (predominant composition in lipids: butter, oils and fats in general).
    • Group IIIPlastics (predominant protein composition: meat, eggs and fish, legumes and nuts) .
    • Group IVPlastics (predominant protein composition: dairy products).
    • Group VRegulators (vegetables and greens). Rich in vitamins and mineral salts.
    • Group VIRegulators (fruits). Rich in vitamins and mineral salts.

In order to have a balanced diet, we must include one food from each group in our diet daily. To provide the body with the necessary nutrients in the appropriate proportions for each person, we must take them according to the amounts represented in the circular sectors of the food wheelAlthough both water and physical activity appear on the wheel and are not food, hydration and exercise are the basis of a healthy diet.

Answer in your notebook

2.5.- What food groups are rich in carbohydrates? And in fats? And in proteins?

Answer in your notebook

2.6.- Make a balanced diet for one day, indicating what foods you eat throughout the day. Indicate to which group each food that appears in the diet belongs.

The food pyramid

Like the food wheel, the food pyramid is a graphic representation that indicates the amount of food we must eat to follow a balanced diet. We will have to eat more frequently the foods that are in the first levels, at the base of the pyramid, and occasionally, those of the highest levels.

  • Level 1:
    • At the base of the pyramid we find the group of foods that should provide most of the daily energy to the body, in addition to fiber.
    • Cereals and derivatives (rice, bread, pasta).
    • Legumes and tubers (potatoes).
  • Level 2:
    • At this level are foods rich in fiber, vitamins and minerals. It is divided in two:
      • Vegetables and vegetables.
      • Fruits.
    • We must avoid fruits in syrup and sugary juices.
  • Level 3:
    • Foods rich in protein and mineral salts. We must take several servings of these foods every day. It is also divided into two components:
      • Milk, cheese and other dairy.
      • Lean meat, fish, seafood, eggs.
  • Level 4:
    • At the highest part of the pyramid are the foods that we have to consume in moderation and occasionally, since they do not provide nutrients and do provide many empty calories .
    • Fatty meat, sausages, nuts in a moderate way.
    • Oils of vegetable origin are preferable to those of animal origin, and cooking in the oven or cooked rather than fried.
    • Sweets, butter in a moderate way .
    • Due to their high content of fast-absorbing sugars and fats, they should only be taken in small amounts.

Activity: We review the food pyramid.


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Biology and Geology teaching materials for Compulsory Secondary Education (ESO) and Baccalaureate students.