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13.3. Factors influencing the ecosystem

Factors influencing the ecosystem

The  limiting factors are the environmental or ecological factors that act directly on the living beings of a population, limiting their size, since these factors determine their birth rate, mortality, migrations, etc.

If environmental factors are optimal for the development of a living being, they favor the growth of that organism in that biotope. But if any of these factors prevents the growth of a species, it is called a limiting factor.

Among these physical and chemical factors that determine the biotope are:

  • Abiotic factors (not dependent on population density):
    • Climatic:
      • LightIn the water only access them more superficial organisms. On land, there is also competition in leafy areas for access.
      • Temperature. Some living things cannot live at the temperature that others live.
      • Water: It is necessary for it to rain or for living beings to be able to access water in order to live. If there is no water, they die.
      • Atmospheric pressure.
    • Non-climatic:
      • Soil factors: The chemical composition of the soil, its pH, salinity, etc. makes some plant species may or may not survive in it.
      • Factors of the aquatic environment: The concentration of O2, dissolved CO2, the degree of salinity, the existence of currents, etc., limits the development of some organisms.
  • Biotic factors (depend on population density):
    • Food. If they don't have enough food, the population will have to be smaller.
    • Interspecific relationships. The number of predators limits the number of prey, and vice versa.
    • Intraspecific relationships. The relationships that are established between individuals of the same species can also limit their existence.

Answer in your notebook

13.5.- What do you think would happen if in a certain ecosystem rainfall begins to be scarce?