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12.4. Non-infectious diseases

Non-infectious diseases

The noninfectious diseases include injuries and disorders in tissues or organs that impair function, but are not transmitted because they are not produced by pathogenic microorganisms.

Some types of non-infectious diseases are:

  • Traumatic diseases. Caused by accidents, blows and twists that cause wounds to the skin or the locomotor system, mainly .
  • Hereditary or genetic diseases. They are inherited from the parents, and are due to an alteration of the genetic material that causes an organ or device to not function properly.
  • Degenerative diseases. There is a progressive deterioration of the tissues that end up affecting the organs and devices. For example, Alzheimer's, where neurons are destroyed, or osteoarthritis, where the cartilage of the joints is destroyed.
  • Mental illnesses. They produce an alteration of the personality .
  • Autoimmune diseases. The immune system fails and detects the body's own cells as foreign and destroys them.
  • Metabolic diseases. Caused by alterations in metabolism, such as diabetes.
  • Cancer. When cells of a tissue grow and proliferate abnormally invading and destroying tissues and organs. If this cell mass or tumor is localized, it grows slowly without invading other tissues, the tumor is benign. The tumor is malignant or cancerous if it invades other tissues and organs (metastasizes). The origin of cancer is varied, and can be genetic, radiation, virus or caused by chemical substances.

  • Cardiovascular diseases. Any disease that affects the heart or blood vessels.
  • Other specific diseases of each organ or apparatus .

Answer in your notebook

12.9.- Point out the difference between infectious diseases and non-infectious diseases. Give three examples of each of the two types.

Answer in your notebook

12.10.- Name two harmful habits and two healthy habits that allow us to avoid some non-infectious diseases.