If the sperm concentration is so low that in vitro fertilization cannot be produced or for some other reason there cannot be fertilization, the sperm can be introduced directly into the cytoplasm of the ovum.
Sperm and Egg Donation
As we have seen, if the eggs or sperm do not allow fertilization to occur, it is necessary to resort to a sperm or egg bank in which an anonymous person has donated their gametes. It is not a simple process. Being an egg donor requires medical treatment and a small surgery to extract it. Being a sperm donor is easier, but only those people who pass rigorous medical controls are admitted as donors, of eggs or sperm.
Although these assisted reproductive techniques are now very normal, it was not until 1978 that Louise Brown, the first “test tube girl”, was born. Since then, 6,000,000 children have been born using these techniques.
Although assisted reproduction has brought children and happiness to couples who wanted to have them, it has raised and continues to raise debates and controversies, by using fertilized eggs, moral, ethical, religious, philosophical and scientific.