Biology and Geology 3rd compulsory secondary education
11.2.1. Contraceptive methods
The sex in humans are not always performed for reproductive purposes. Having a child has to be a premeditated act and we have to be responsible with our sexuality. Therefore, if we want to have sex and not have children, we must use a contraceptive method.
Natural contraceptive methods are based on the physiological changes that are detected throughout the menstrual cycle, such as temperature, mucus, etc. According to this, sexual intercourse can only be performed without risk of pregnancy on days when the woman is not fertile. They also do not protect against sexually transmitted diseases.
Although we include them here, because of their low efficacy, they should not be used as contraceptive methods. They are unsafe because menstrual cycles are sometimes not regular and can be altered by many factors (hormonal, illnesses, stress, etc.).
Ogino or the rhythm or the calendar. It is based on not having sex when the woman is ovulating. To do this, count the days of the menstrual cycle and choose the days when the woman is least fertile.
Body or basal temperature. The body temperature of the woman is measured during all the days of the menstrual cycle, in the same place and at the same time, which is usually between 36 and 36.5º. During ovulation, this temperature rises to about 37º. It's about avoiding sex on the day your temperature rises.
Cervical mucus. The fluid in the cervix, the neck of the uterus, becomes clear when the woman is ovulating, so sexual intercourse should be avoided.
They cannot be considered or contraceptive methods due to their high risk of failure. Some of these unsafe performances are:
Vaginal washing after sexual intercourse. Some sperm can reach the cervix before washing.
Coitus interruptus or "going backwards". It consists of the man ejaculating outside the vagina, but before ejaculation, the precum may contain some sperm and pregnancy may occur. It is the method with the highest failure rate.
These methods act as a barrier that prevents the sperm from moving to the egg.
Preservative o male condom
The condom is a thin, elastic latex or polyurethane sheath that is placed on the erect penis and collects the semen from ejaculation, preventing sperm from entering the uterus.
It is a sheath that is placed inside the vagina, acting in a similar way to the male condom, preventing sperm from reaching the uterus. It does not have to be used in conjunction with the male condom. They also prevent STDs.
They are devices that prevent the zygote from nesting in the uterus.
IUD (intrauterine device)
It is a metal or plastic device that has a T-shape that is inserted into the uterus, preventing the ascent of the sperm and the implantation of the fertilizedovum. It has to be placed by a gynecologist and undergo periodic check-ups.
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They use chemical substances that intervene on the eggs or sperm. Some of these methods are:
They are creams or gels that are placed in the vagina before intercourse and remove sperm or alter its mobility. Their efficacy is low, but they are often used in addition to other barrier methods, such as the condom or the diaphragm.
Using spermicides does not protect or prevent STDs .
Birth control pills, vaginal patches, injections, or rings
They contain sex hormones that alter the ovarian cycle, preventing ovulation. They must be prescribed by a doctor. Its efficiency is very high. It does not protect against sexually transmitted diseases.
The postcoital or "morning after" pill is not a preventive method but an emergency method, which should only be used when others have failed or there has been a violation, as it may pose a risk to the woman's health. It is not an abortion pill, since its function is to prevent the implantation of the ovum.
They are surgical interventions in the ducts of the reproductive system. It is the best contraceptive method if it is very clear that you do not want to have more children, since it is a definitive method. It is not recommended for young people and it does not prevent STDs.
Very effective, without affecting the sexual relationship. Hormonal balance is maintained, menstruation does not vary.
It should be considered a definitive method of contraception, although the functionality of the fallopian tubes can now be restored.
Surgical intervention consisting of sectioning and sewing the vas deferens to prevent the sperm from escaping to the outside. The ejaculation remains normal, except that the semen lacks sperm.
Its effectiveness is very high, without affecting the hormonal balance or sexual relations. It should be considered as a definitive contraceptive method, although currently the previous situation can be recovered.